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ScienceDaily: Nyt om Mind & Brain

Udgiv indhold Mind & Brain News -- ScienceDaily
Learn about migraine headache symptoms and treatment. Read the latest research on the various types of headaches such as migraine headaches, sinus headaches, and cluster headaches, among others. Find out the causes of headaches and how to get relief.
Opdateret: 3 hours 14 min siden

No sedative necessary: Scientists discover new 'sleep node' in the brain

tor, 09/18/2014 - 21:23
A sleep-promoting circuit located deep in the primitive brainstem has revealed how we fall into deep sleep. This is only the second 'sleep node' identified in the mammalian brain whose activity appears to be both necessary and sufficient to produce deep sleep.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Sensing neuronal activity with light

tor, 09/18/2014 - 21:23
For years, neuroscientists have been trying to develop tools that would allow them to clearly view the brain's circuitry in action -- from the first moment a neuron fires to the resulting behavior in an organism. To get this complete picture, neuroscientists are working to develop a range of new tools to study the brain. Researchers have now developed one such tool that provides a new way of mapping neural networks in a living organism.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Benefits of telecommuting greater for some workers, study finds

tor, 09/18/2014 - 20:09
Telecommuting is positively associated with improvement in two important employee measures: task-based performance and organizational citizenship behavior, including one's contributions toward creating a positive, cooperative and friendly work environment, an expert says.
Kategorier: Hjernen

A new quality control pathway in the cell

tor, 09/18/2014 - 19:15
Researchers have described a new protein quality control system in the inner nuclear membrane. The new system has two main functions, to eliminate misfolded proteins and to protect the nucleus from accumulating mislocalized or ectopic proteins. This may be especially relevant in non-dividing cells such as neurons.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Pupil size shows reliability of decisions, before information on decision is presented

tor, 09/18/2014 - 19:15
The precision with which people make decisions can be predicted by measuring pupil size before they are presented with any information about the decision, according to a new study.
Kategorier: Hjernen

How epigenetic memory is passed through generations: Sperm and eggs transmit memory of gene repression to embryos

tor, 09/18/2014 - 19:14
A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental stresses can cause changes in gene expression that are transmitted from parents to their offspring, making 'epigenetics' a hot topic. Epigenetic modifications do not affect the DNA sequence of genes, but change how the DNA is packaged and how genes are expressed. Now, scientists have shown how epigenetic memory can be passed across generations and from cell to cell during development.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Scientists discover 'dimmer switch' for mood disorders

tor, 09/18/2014 - 19:11
Researchers have identified a control mechanism for an area of the brain that processes sensory and emotive information that humans experience as "disappointment." The discovery may provide be a neurochemical antidote for feeling let-down.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Human sense of fairness evolved to favor long-term cooperation, primate study suggests

tor, 09/18/2014 - 19:11
The human response to unfairness evolved in order to support long-term cooperation, according to a new research. Fairness is a social ideal that cannot be measured, so to understand the evolution of fairness in humans scientists have studied the behavioral responses to equal versus unequal reward division in other primates.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Smartphone app reveals users' mental health, performance, behavior

tor, 09/18/2014 - 17:14
Researchers have built the first smartphone app that automatically reveals college students' mental health, academic performance and behavioral trends. In other words, your smartphone knows your state of mind -- even if you don't -- and how that affects you. The StudentLife app, which compares students' happiness, stress, depression and loneliness to their academic performance, also may be used in the general population -- for example, to monitor mental health, trigger intervention and improve productivity in workplace employees.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Gambling with confidence: Are you sure about that?

tor, 09/18/2014 - 17:14
Confidence determines much of our path through life, but what is it? Most people would describe it as an emotion or a feeling. In contrast, scientists have found that confidence is actually a measurable quantity, and not reserved just for humans. The team has identified a brain region in rats whose function is required to for the animals to express confidence in their decisions.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Gene linked to increased dendritic spines -- a signpost of autism

tor, 09/18/2014 - 17:13
Knocking out the gene NrCAM increases the number of dendritic spines on excitatory pyramidal neurons, researchers have discovered. Other studies have confirmed that the overabundance of dendritic spines allows for too many synaptic connections – a phenomenon strongly linked to autism.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Students' reporting of weapons at school: Factors that influence decision to 'tell'

tor, 09/18/2014 - 15:16
As a result of outbreaks of violence in the nation's schools, concerns have grown about school safety and the overall well-being of students. Now, criminology researchers discovered that academic achievement and knowledge of security measures increased the likelihood that high school students would report a knife or gun at school.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Dogs can be pessimists, too

tor, 09/18/2014 - 15:16
Dogs generally seem to be cheerful, happy-go-lucky characters, so you might expect that most would have an optimistic outlook on life. In fact some dogs are distinctly more pessimistic than others, new research shows.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Kids eat better if their parents went to college

tor, 09/18/2014 - 15:16
Children of college-educated parents eat more vegetables and drink less sugar, according to a new study. But it's still not enough, the study goes on to say, as all kids are falling short when it comes to eating healthier at school. The research suggests a parent's educational attainment, an indicator of socioeconomic status, may inform a child's diet.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Americans rate losing eyesight as having greatest impact on their lives

tor, 09/18/2014 - 15:16
Many Americans across racial and ethnic groups describe losing eyesight as potentially having the greatest impact on their day-to-day life, more so than other conditions including: loss of limb, memory, hearing and speech, a survey shows.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Lone wolf terrorists target police more, but attacks not more frequent

tor, 09/18/2014 - 15:14
Lone wolf terrorist attacks are not on the rise as popular culture might lead one to believe — but the attacks are more personal, use high-velocity firearms and targeting military and police, a researcher concludes.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Men enjoy competition, but so do women, researchers find

tor, 09/18/2014 - 14:55
Common stereotypes would have us believe that men are more competitive and women more cooperative. Researchers studied the physiological responses to competitive and cooperative play, investigating emotions, i.e. how males and females are motivated to behave in these situations. While males did enjoy competition more than cooperation, females enjoyed both competition and cooperation equally.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Middle school dilemma: Girls' body image affected by older peers

tor, 09/18/2014 - 14:14
The media is highly criticized for contributing to body image issues in adolescents. However, a study finds a different source for body dissatisfaction among young girls: older girls at school.
Kategorier: Hjernen

How stress tears us apart: Enzyme attacks synaptic molecule, leading to cognitive impairment

tor, 09/18/2014 - 14:14
Why is it that when people are too stressed they are often grouchy, grumpy, nasty, distracted or forgetful? Researchers have just highlighted a fundamental synaptic mechanism that explains the relationship between chronic stress and the loss of social skills and cognitive impairment. When triggered by stress, an enzyme attacks a synaptic regulatory molecule in the brain, leading to these problems.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Spontaneous mutations in key brain gene are a cause of autism, study concludes

tor, 09/18/2014 - 14:10
Spontaneous mutations in the brain gene TBR1 disrupt the function of the encoded protein in children with severe autism. In addition, there is a direct link between TBR1 and FOXP2, a well-known language-related protein, researchers report.
Kategorier: Hjernen