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ScienceDaily: Nyt om Mind & Brain

Udgiv indhold Mind & Brain News -- ScienceDaily
Learn about migraine headache symptoms and treatment. Read the latest research on the various types of headaches such as migraine headaches, sinus headaches, and cluster headaches, among others. Find out the causes of headaches and how to get relief.
Opdateret: 11 hours 2 min siden

Early exposure to antidepressants affects adult anxiety, serotonin transmission

fre, 12/19/2014 - 22:06
Early developmental exposure to two different antidepressants, Prozac and Lexapro, has been studied by researchers in a mouse model that mimics human third trimester medication exposure. They found that, although these serotonin-selective reuptake inhibiting antidepressants were thought to work the same way, they did not produce the same long-term changes in anxiety behavior in the adult mice. About 15 percent of women in the United States suffer from anxiety disorders and depression during their pregnancies, and many are prescribed antidepressants.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Family criticizing your weight? You might add more pounds

fre, 12/19/2014 - 22:05
Women whose loved ones are critical of their weight tend to put on even more pounds, says a new study on the way people's comments affect our health. "When we feel bad about our bodies, we often turn to loved ones -- families, friends and romantic partners -- for support and advice. How they respond can have a bigger effect than we might think," said one author.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Gene critical for proper brain development discovered

fre, 12/19/2014 - 16:41
A genetic pathway has been found that accounts for the extraordinary size of the human brain. The research team has identified a gene, KATNB1, as an essential component in a genetic pathway responsible for central nervous system development in humans and other animals.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Neuroscientists identify brain mechanisms that predict generosity in children

fre, 12/19/2014 - 16:39
Developmental neuroscientists have found specific brain markers that predict generosity in children. Those neural markers appear to be linked to both social and moral evaluation processes. Although young children are natural helpers, their perspective on sharing resources tends to be selfish.
Kategorier: Hjernen

OCD patients' brains light up to reveal how compulsive habits develop

fre, 12/19/2014 - 14:51
Misfiring of the brain's control system might underpin compulsions in obsessive-compulsive disorder, according to researchers.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Being humble: Research shows E.B. White was right in Charlotte's Web

fre, 12/19/2014 - 03:01
Psychologists conducted a bottom-up exploration of what it really means to be humble. They found that people see a unique dimension of humility akin to a love of learning.
Kategorier: Hjernen

High socioeconomic status increases discrimination, depression risk in black young adults

fre, 12/19/2014 - 03:01
An investigation into factors related to disparities of depression in young adults has found that higher parental education -- which has a protective effect for white youth -- can also increase the risk of depression for black youth by increasing the discrimination they experience.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Tooth loss linked to slowing mind, body

fre, 12/19/2014 - 03:00
The memory and walking speeds of adults who have lost all of their teeth decline more rapidly than in those who still have some of their own teeth, finds new research. The association between total tooth loss and memory was explained after the results of a study were fully adjusted for a wide range of factors, such as sociodemographic characteristics, existing health problems, physical health, health behaviors, such as smoking and drinking, depression, relevant biomarkers, and particularly socioeconomic status. However, after adjusting for all possible factors, people without teeth still walked slightly slower than those with teeth.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Less than half of UK prescriptions for antipsychotics issued for main licensed conditions

fre, 12/19/2014 - 03:00
Less than half of UK prescriptions for antipsychotic drugs are being issued to treat the serious mental illnesses for which they are mainly licensed, reveals research. Instead, they may often be prescribed 'off label' to older people with other conditions, such as anxiety and dementia, despite the greater risk of potentially serious side effects in this age group, the findings indicate.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Ability to balance on one leg may reflect brain health, stroke risk

fre, 12/19/2014 - 03:00
Struggling to stand on one leg for less than 20 seconds was linked to an increased risk for stroke, small blood vessel damage in the brain, and reduced cognitive function in otherwise healthy people, a study has shown. One-legged standing time may be a simple test used to measure early signs of abnormalities in the brain associated with cognitive decline, cerebral small vessel disease and stroke.
Kategorier: Hjernen

'Deep learning' finds autism, cancer mutations in unexplored regions of genome

tor, 12/18/2014 - 20:10
Scientists have built a computer model that has uncovered disease-causing mutations in large regions of the genome that previously could not be explored. Their method seeks out mutations that cause changes in 'gene splicing,' and has revealed unexpected genetic determinants of autism, colon cancer and spinal muscular atrophy.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Scheduling sleep: Three nighttime habits to improve rest

tor, 12/18/2014 - 20:08
With an increase in parties, increased food and alcohol consumption and a general disruption of normal routines, the month of December can be exhausting. Here are three tips to improve sleep habits.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Scientists map out how childhood brain tumors relapse

tor, 12/18/2014 - 18:07
The unique genetic paths that the childhood brain tumor medulloblastoma follows when the disease comes back has been mapped out, researchers report. Scientists looked at biopsies from the relapsed tumours of 29 patients. They found a range of changes that only appeared when the disease returned and were responsible for the cancer becoming more aggressive.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Is there a better way to treat substance use in adolescents with co-occurring mental health disorders?

tor, 12/18/2014 - 16:31
The majority (55-74%) of adolescents entering substance use treatment also have psychiatric disorders, such as depression, ADHD and trauma-related problems. Unfortunately, these youth face poorer treatment outcomes (e.g., relapse), and their mental health issues are often not directly addressed. Furthermore, few studies exist to guide those clinicians who would like to use integrated care to treat adolescent with co-occurring disorders. A new review proposes that the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), which is a combination of cognitive-behavioral and family therapies, may be an ideal treatment method for this patient population.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Fine particulate air pollution linked with increased autism risk

tor, 12/18/2014 - 14:13
Women exposed to high levels of fine particulate matter specifically during pregnancy -- particularly during the third trimester -- may face up to twice the risk of having a child with autism than mothers living in areas with low particulate matter, according to a study. The greater the exposure, the greater the risk, researchers found. It was the first US-wide study exploring the link between airborne particulate matter and autism.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Early caregiving experiences have long-term effects on social relationships, achievement

tor, 12/18/2014 - 14:13
A new study has found that sensitive caregiving in the first three years of life predicts an individual's social competence and academic achievement, not only during childhood and adolescence, but into adulthood. The study used information from 243 individuals who were born into poverty, came from a range of racial/ethnic backgrounds, and had been followed from birth to age 32.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Quality of parent-infant relationships, early childhood shyness predict teen anxiety

tor, 12/18/2014 - 14:13
Social anxiety is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents. A new study has found that together, the quality of parent-infant relationships and early childhood shyness predict the likelihood of social anxiety in adolescence. In this longitudinal study, researchers studied 165 European-American, middle- to upper-middle-class adolescents who were recruited as infants.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Subtle but important memory function affected by preterm birth

tor, 12/18/2014 - 14:13
A study of children born prematurely has found differences in a subtle but important aspect of memory: the ability to form and retrieve memories about context. The study examined 33 8-to 10-year olds using magnetic resonance imaging to measure the volume of the hippocampi. The results suggest that the maturational state of the hippocampus at the time of birth influences the maturation of certain memory functions even at 8- to 10-years old.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Why are UK teenagers skipping school?

tor, 12/18/2014 - 14:11
Analysis of the results of a large-scale survey reveals the extent of truancy in English secondary schools and sheds light on the mental health of the country’s teens.
Kategorier: Hjernen

How does prostate cancer form? Parkinson's Link?

tor, 12/18/2014 - 14:08
The cause of prostate cancer may be linked to Parkinson’s disease through a common enzyme family called sirtuins. Finding an enzyme that regulates this process could provide excellent new prevention approaches for this common malignancy, researchers say. Sirtuin enzymes have been implicated in neurodegeneration, obesity, heart disease, and cancer.
Kategorier: Hjernen