ScienceDaily: Nyt om Mind & Brain
Learn about migraine headache symptoms and treatment. Read the latest research on the various types of headaches such as migraine headaches, sinus headaches, and cluster headaches, among others. Find out the causes of headaches and how to get relief.
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A psychology researcher is proposing a new theory to explain why older adults show declining cognitive ability with age, but don't necessarily show declines in the workplace or daily life. One key appears to be how motivated older adults are to maintain focus on cognitive tasks.
Using data from over 18,000 patients, scientists have identified more than two dozen genetic risk factors involved in Parkinson's disease, including six that had not been previously reported. "Unraveling the genetic underpinnings of Parkinson's is vital to understanding the multiple mechanisms involved in this complex disease, and hopefully, may one day lead to effective therapies," said the senior author of the study.
New technologies for monitoring brain activity are generating unprecedented quantities of information. That data may hold new insights into how the brain works -- but only if researchers can interpret it. To help make sense of the data, neuroscientists can now harness the power of distributed computing with Thunder, a library of tools.
Researchers have identified neural pathways that increase understanding of how the brain regulates body weight, energy expenditure, and blood glucose levels – a discovery that can lead to new therapies for treating Type 2 diabetes and obesity.
A study involving nearly 27,000 older adults on five continents found that nearly 1 in 10 met criteria for pre-dementia based on a simple test that measures how fast people walk and whether they have cognitive complaints. People who tested positive for pre-dementia were twice as likely as others to develop dementia within 12 years.
An experimental anti-inflammatory drug can protect vulnerable neurons and reduce motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease, a study has shown. The findings demonstrate that the drug, called XPro1595, can reach the brain at sufficient levels and have beneficial effects when administered by subcutaneous injection, like an insulin shot. Previous studies of XPro1595 in animals tested more invasive modes of delivery, such as direct injection into the brain.
A protein that controls when genes are switched on or off plays a key role in specific areas of the brain to regulate metabolism, researchers have found. The research potentially could lead to new therapies to treat obesity and diabetes, since the transcription factor involved – spliced X-box binding protein 1 – appears to influence the body's sensitivity to insulin and leptin signaling.
Early life experiences, such as childhood socioeconomic status and literacy, may have greater influence on the risk of cognitive impairment late in life than such demographic characteristics as race and ethnicity, a large study has found. "These findings are important," explained the lead author of the study "because it challenges earlier research that suggests associations between race and ethnicity, particularly among Latinos, and an increased risk of late-life cognitive impairment and dementia.
Does responsiveness increase sexual desire in the other person? Do men perceive responsive women as more attractive, and does the same hold true for women's perceptions of men? A recent study undertook to answer those questions.
A new technology can now be utilized on patients called the Quotient® ADHD Test. t is FDA-cleared for the objective measurement of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention, as an aid in the assessment of ADHD. ADHD is a common childhood condition characterized by more than normal difficulty with focus, behavior control, impulsivity and hyperactivity.
A false positive screen result -- a screening test in which initial findings of concern for cancer are later found not to be worrisome -- did not cause participants undue anxiety or reduced quality of life, a new study shows. Researchers hypothesize that clear and accurate consent forms prepared patients for these false positive diagnoses.
Researchers defined parameters that estimate the speed of regression of a native language when replaced by one of its neighboring languages. The study focused on the case of Welsh. In a wider context, this type of model could be applied to other examples of cultural changes in which the more favorable traits expand and abolish the predominance of a native cultural trait.
Family carers of people with dementia may need more support with medication management, according to a recent study. "Family carers have a key role in supporting medication management particularly as the dementia progresses. We need to understand the challenges that family carers face and how healthcare professionals can help," an author noted.
Today, nearly 700,000 people in the U.S. are living with a brain tumor, and yet, when it comes to pinpointing causes or risk factors, scientists are still searching for answers. "Unlike the strong correlation between smoking and lung cancer, we just haven't found a specific risk factor like that for brain tumors," said a researcher. "We have determined that ionizing radiation to the head is a risk factor when received in therapeutic doses, but even in those cases, the risk of developing a brain tumor is low."
For the first time, scientists generated induced pluripotent stem cells lines from skin samples of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis and further, they developed an accelerated protocol to induce these stem cells into becoming oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system implicated in multiple sclerosis and many other diseases.
Researchers may have found a way to delay or even prevent Alzheimer's disease. They discovered that pre-treatment of neurons with the anti-aging protein Klotho can prevent neuron death in the presence of the toxic amyloid protein and glutamate. Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent age-related dementia affecting 5.4 million Americans including 13 percent of people age 65 and older and more than 40 percent of people over the age of 85.
People choosing between two or more equally positive outcomes experience paradoxical feelings of pleasure and anxiety, feelings associated with activity in different regions of the brain, according to research. In the study, participants made choices between paired products with different or similar values. Choosing between two items of high value evoked the most positive feelings and the greatest anxiety.
Humans aren’t the only species to react strongly to actions they consider unfair. A similar drive for fairness in monkeys and some dogs may offer insight into people’s desire for equity, according to experts.
Preventing gun violence will require a scientific public health approach and recognition of the limits of predicting individual cases of violence, according to experts.
'Experiential products,' items such as books or musical instruments that are designed to create or enhance an experience, can make shoppers just as happy as life experiences, according to a new study. While life experiences help consumers feel closer to others, experiential products fulfill their users' need for 'competence' by utilizing their skills and knowledge. Both effects provide the same happiness boost, researchers found.