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ScienceDaily: Nyt om Mind & Brain

Udgiv indhold ScienceDailyMind & Brain News
Learn about migraine headache symptoms and treatment. Read the latest research on the various types of headaches such as migraine headaches, sinus headaches, and cluster headaches, among others. Find out the causes of headaches and how to get relief.
Opdateret: 6 hours 15 min siden

Impact of childhood bullying still evident after 40 years

fre, 04/18/2014 - 02:25
The negative social, physical and mental health effects of childhood bullying are still evident nearly 40 years later, according to new research. The study is the first to look at the effects of bullying beyond early adulthood. Just over a quarter of children in the study (28%) had been bullied occasionally, and 15% bullied frequently -- similar to rates in the UK today. Individuals who were bullied in childhood were more likely to have poorer physical and psychological health and cognitive functioning at age 50. Individuals who were frequently bullied in childhood were at an increased risk of depression, anxiety disorders, and suicidal thoughts.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Our brains are hardwired for language

fre, 04/18/2014 - 00:16
People blog, they don't lbog, and they schmooze, not mshooze. But why is this? Why are human languages so constrained? Can such restrictions unveil the basis of the uniquely human capacity for language? New research shows the brains of individual speakers are sensitive to language universals. Syllables that are frequent across languages are recognized more readily than infrequent syllables. Simply put, this study shows that language universals are hardwired in the human brain.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Proteomics discovers link between muscle damage and cerebral malaria

fre, 04/18/2014 - 00:16
Malaria-related complications remain a major cause of death for children in many parts of the world. Why some children develop these complications while others don't is still not understood. Scientists now report results of a systematic proteomics approach to the question.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Inhibited children become anxious adults: Examining the causes and effects of early shyness

tor, 04/17/2014 - 20:59
Three little girls sit together in a room, playing with the toys surrounding them. One of the girls -- "Emma" -- has clearly taken charge of the group, and the others happily go along with her. A fourth girl -- "Jane" -- enters the room, hiding her face while clinging to her mother. The first three continue to play, while mom sits Jane down with some toys a few feet away from the group. After mom leaves, however, Jane sits alone against the wall. Emma makes her way over to Jane, inviting her to play with the rest of the group. Jane -- looking trapped -- starts to cry, then stands up and tries desperately to open the door.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Is Parkinson's an autoimmune disease?

tor, 04/17/2014 - 20:12
The cause of neuronal death in Parkinson's disease is still unknown, but a new study proposes that neurons may be mistaken for foreign invaders and killed by the person's own immune system, similar to the way autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, and multiple sclerosis attack the body's cells.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Loud talking, horseplay in car results in more serious incidents for teen drivers

tor, 04/17/2014 - 19:19
Adolescent drivers are often distracted by technology while they are driving, but loud conversations and horseplay between passengers appear more likely to result in a dangerous incident, according to a new study. Researchers ecruited 52 North Carolina high-school age drivers to have in-vehicle cameras mounted in their cars and trucks to observe distracted driving behaviors and distracted conditions when teen drivers were behind the wheel. Young drivers were recorded in a variety of real-world driving situations over six months -- with parents in the car, with other teens in the car and alone.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Connecting sleep deficits among young fruit flies to disruption in mating later in life

tor, 04/17/2014 - 19:19
Mom always said you need your sleep, and it turns out, she was right. According to a new study, the lack of sleep in young fruit flies profoundly diminishes their ability to do one thing they do really, really well -- make more flies. To address whether sleep loss in young flies affects development of courtship circuits, the team investigated a group of neurons implicated in courtship. One particular subset of those neurons was smaller in sleep-deprived animals than normal flies, suggesting a possible mechanism for how sleep deprivation can lead to altered courting behavior.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Boosting depression-causing mechanisms in brain increases resilience, surprisingly

tor, 04/17/2014 - 19:18
New research uncovers a conceptually novel approach to treating depression. Instead of dampening neuron firing found with stress-induced depression, researchers demonstrated for the first time that further activating these neurons opens a new avenue to mimic and promote natural resilience.
Kategorier: Hjernen

New cause of brain bleeding immediately after stroke identified

tor, 04/17/2014 - 17:47
By discovering a new mechanism that allows blood to enter the brain immediately after a stroke, researchers have opened the door to new therapies that may limit or prevent stroke-induced brain damage. A complex and devastating neurological condition, stroke is the fourth-leading cause of death and primary reason for disability in the U.S. The blood-brain barrier is severely damaged in a stroke and lets blood-borne material into the brain, causing the permanent deficits in movement and cognition seen in stroke patients.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Internet use may cut retirees' depression

tor, 04/17/2014 - 17:47
Spending time online has the potential to ward off depression among retirees, particularly among those who live alone, according to research. Authors report that internet use reduced the probability of a depressed state by 33 percent among their study sample. Late-life depression affects between 5 and 10 million Americans age 50 and older. This new study shows that the Internet offers older Americans a chance to overcome the social and spatial boundaries that are believed to fuel depression.
Kategorier: Hjernen

How vision makes sure that little fish do not get carried away

tor, 04/17/2014 - 17:47
Our eyes not only enable us to recognize objects, they also provide us with a continuous stream of information about our own movements. The world glides by us and leaves a characteristic motion trace on our retinas. Seemingly without effort, our brain calculates self-motion from this "optic flow." This way, we can maintain a stable position and a steady gaze during our own movements. Scientists have now discovered an array of new types of neurons, which help the brain of zebrafish to perceive, and compensate for, self-motion.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Unraveling the 'black ribbon' around lung cancer

tor, 04/17/2014 - 17:45
A study consisting of lung cancer patients, primarily smokers between the ages of 51 to 79 years old, is shedding more light on the stigma often felt by these patients, the emotional toll it can have and how health providers can help. Previous research has shown that lung cancer carries a stigma. Because lung cancer is primarily linked to smoking behaviors, the public's opinion of the disease can often be judgmental. Today, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death globally.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Classifying cognitive styles across disciplines

tor, 04/17/2014 - 17:45
Various fields have developed diverse approaches to understanding the way people process information. A new report from psychological scientists aims to integrate these approaches by offering a new, integrated framework of cognitive styles that bridges different terminologies, concepts, and approaches.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Discovery could lead to novel therapies for Fragile X syndrome

tor, 04/17/2014 - 17:43
Scientists studying the most common form of inherited mental disability -- a genetic disease called 'Fragile X syndrome' -- have uncovered new details about the cellular processes responsible for the condition that could lead to the development of therapies to restore some of the capabilities lost in affected individuals.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Neurons in brain tune into different frequencies for different spatial memory tasks

tor, 04/17/2014 - 17:43
Your brain transmits information about your current location and memories of past locations over the same neural pathways using different frequencies of a rhythmic electrical activity called gamma waves, report neuroscientists. The research may provide insight into the cognitive and memory disruptions seen in diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's, in which gamma waves are disturbed.
Kategorier: Hjernen

For resetting circadian rhythms, neural cooperation is key

tor, 04/17/2014 - 17:43
Fruit flies are pretty predictable when it comes to scheduling their days, with peaks of activity at dawn and dusk and rest times in between. Now, researchers have found that the clusters of brain cells responsible for each of those activity peaks -- known as the morning and evening oscillators, respectively -- don't work alone. For flies' internal clocks to follow the sun, cooperation is key.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Common links between neurodegenerative diseases identified

tor, 04/17/2014 - 17:42
The pattern of brain alterations may be similar in several different neurodegenerative diseases, which opens the door to alternative therapeutic strategies to tackle these diseases, experts say.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Newlyweds, be careful what you wish for

tor, 04/17/2014 - 15:11
A statistical analysis of the gift 'fulfillments' at several hundred online wedding gift registries suggests that wedding guests are caught between a rock and a hard place when it comes to buying an appropriate gift for the happy couple. The study suggests that most people hope to garner social benefits of buying an expensive gift that somehow enhances their relationship with the newlyweds while at the same time they wish to limit monetary cost and save money.
Kategorier: Hjernen

'I spy' used to show spoken language helps direct children's eyes

tor, 04/17/2014 - 14:08
Children spot objects more quickly when prompted by words than if they are only prompted by images, cognitive scientists have demonstrated. Spoken language taps into children's cognitive system, enhancing their ability to learn and to navigate cluttered environments. As such the study opens up new avenues for research into the way language might shape the course of developmental disabilities such as ADHD, difficulties with school, and other attention-related problems.
Kategorier: Hjernen

Suicide epidemic among India's 'marginalized' farmers

tor, 04/17/2014 - 14:07
A new study has found that India’s shocking rates of suicide are highest in areas with the most debt-ridden farmers who are clinging to tiny smallholdings – less than one hectare – and trying to grow ‘cash crops’, such as cotton and coffee, that are highly susceptible to global price fluctuations.
Kategorier: Hjernen